Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.

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Gymnosporia senegalensis

Photo: Bart Wursten
B8 road through Bwabwata near Mwitiku

Gymnosporia senegalensis

Photo: Bart Wursten
Along D3508 Kalimbeza road

Gymnosporia senegalensis

Photo: Bart Wursten
Along D3508 Kalimbeza road

Detailed records: Display species records QDS maps by: Google Maps Point records by Google Maps

Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell
Common names: Confetti tree (English) Red spike-thorn (English)
Status: Native
Shrub or small multi-stemmed tree, unarmed or with strong, straight spines. Young branches distinctly red. Leaves blue-green, spirally arranged, sometimes in fascicles on the spines, oblong to obovate, often notched at the apex; margins crenate-dentate. Flowers in dense axillary and terminal clusters, sweetly scented. Fruit a 2-lobed capsule pinkish to reddish-brown when ripe.
Derivation of specific name: senegalensis: of Senegal
Habitat: A species occurring in a wide variety of habitats.
Flowering time:Jul - Sep
Worldwide distribution: Sub-saharan Africa from Senegal to Eritrea and south to northern Namibia, Botswana and South Africa; also in southern Spain, North Africa, Afghanistan to India, Aldabra and Madagascar.
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Charaxes cithaeron cithaeron (Food plant)
Hypolycaena philippus philippus (Larval foodplant)
Charaxes castor flavifasciatus (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Tuesday 27 March 2018

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 127.

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 510. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 29.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 19.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 611 - 612. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 127 - 130. as Maytenus senegalensis (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, M. (1989). Guide to the trees and shrubs of the Mukuvisi Woodlands ?publisher. Page 19. as Maytenus senegalensis

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 400 - 401. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 43.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 255. As Maytenus senegalensis

Drummond, R.B. (1981). Common Trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare. Pages 124 - 125. as Maytenus senegalensis (Includes a picture).

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 236 - 237. as Maytenus senegalensis (Includes a picture).

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 79. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 33.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 39.

Robson, N.K.B. (1966). Celastraceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(2) Pages 367 - 369. (Includes a picture).

Robson, N.K.B., Hallé, N., Mathew, B. & Blakelock, R. (1994). Celastraceae Flora of Tropical East Africa Pages 15 - 19. as Maytenus senegalensis (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 88 - 89. (Includes a picture).

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 344 - 345. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 45.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 24.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Pages 41 - 42. (Includes a picture).

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 66. as Maytenus senegalensis

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 203.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 124 - 125. (Includes a picture).

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 140 - 141. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Gymnosporia senegalensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Gymnosporia senegalensis
Flora of Malawi: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Flora of Mozambique: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Flora of Zambia: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Flora of Zimbabwe: Gymnosporia senegalensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Gymnosporia senegalensis
African Plant Database: Gymnosporia senegalensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Gymnosporia senegalensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Gymnosporia senegalensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Gymnosporia senegalensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Gymnosporia senegalensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Gymnosporia senegalensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Plants of the World Online: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Tropicos: Gymnosporia senegalensis
Wikipedia: Gymnosporia senegalensis

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Caprivi: Species information: Gymnosporia senegalensis., retrieved 9 December 2023

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