Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne
subsp. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Brenan

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Synonyms: Acacia spirocarpa Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi subsp. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr.
Common names: Umbrella thorn (English)
Frequency:
Status:
Description:
Medium to large tree with a distinct flat topped, umbrella shape. It is generally a larger tree than subsp. heteracantha, except where young specimens are heavily browsed upon by large game on a regular basis. The pods of subsp. spirocarpa are more laxly curled and covered in velvety hairs and small red glands. The young branches are also pubescent.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat:
Flowering time:Nov - Jan
Worldwide distribution:
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Literature:

Brenan, J.P.M. (1970). Mimosoideae Flora Zambesiaca 3(1) Pages 102 - 103.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 180 - 182. (Includes a picture).

Drummond, R.B. (1972). A list of Rhodesian Legumes. Kirkia 8(2) Page 214.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 241.

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 120 - 121. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 60.

Timberlake, J., Fagg, C. & Barnes, R. (1999). Field Guide to the Acacias of Zimbabwe CBC Publishing, Harare Pages 132 - 134. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa
Flora of Mozambique: Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa
Flora of Zambia: Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Acacia tortilis
African Plant Database: Acacia tortilis
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Acacia tortilis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Acacia tortilis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Acacia tortilis
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Acacia tortilis
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Acacia tortilis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Acacia tortilis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Acacia tortilis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Acacia tortilis
Ispot Southern Africa: Acacia tortilis
JSTOR Plant Science: Acacia tortilis
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Acacia tortilis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Acacia tortilis
The Plant List (version 1.1): Acacia tortilis
Tropicos: Acacia tortilis


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-18

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2018). Flora of Caprivi: Species information: Acacia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa.
https://www.capriviflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=126240, retrieved 17 July 2018

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